Changing file and folder permissions in ISPmanager5

To change permissions for a file/folder, go to "File Manager → WWW → to the necessary folder or file "

Select the desired folder or file and click "Attributes "

file

In the window that opens, set the necessary rights:

file

  • 1.Specify read, write, and execute rights for the owner. Execution rights for a directory means the right to view its contents
  • 2.Specify read, write, and execute rights for the group. Execution right for the directory means the right to view its contents
  • 3.Specify read, write, and execute rights for anyone who is not the owner and does not belong to the group. Execution right for a directory means the right to view its contents

In the column "Change child items " we can change the owner and access rights for files and/or directories.

Click "Ok "

Changing permissions on files and folders via FTP

Let's consider changing permissions on the example of an FTP client - FileZilla. When you connect to the account, the root directory will open, where with a right-click you will be able to change the access rights.

Connecting to the account via FTP

Right-click on a file or folder and select "File permissions ".

file

In the new window, set the rights
In the case of a directory, you can change permissions recursively by selecting the "Redirect to subdirectories " option.

file

Saving changes.

Standard access rights:

  • "Files-644"
  • "Folders-755"
  • "Permissions-777" - grants all privileges to user, group and other system users (not secure and not recommended to set).

Changing permissions on files and folders via SSH

Chmod is a utility which allows you to quickly change permissions for certain owners* and groups* for specified categories and files.

Each file and folder (directory) has its own owner and group to which it belongs. This is done to differentiate access rights for read (r, read), write (w, write) and execute (x, execute) for different users: owners (u)*, users in owner group (g), and others (o)**. Example: 750 and rwxr-x- - - (here the owner has full access to the file, the owner group can open and run the file, but cannot modify or delete it, while everyone else is completely denied access to the file).

Chmod* syntax

chmod [-Rvf] [Access Rules] [File/Files/File Directory]  

The [Access Rules] part can be either numeric or character values.
[File/Files/File directory] - path to file, files or file directory, absolute or relative

Clues -R, -v, -f

  • -R Recursive permission change for directory and subdirectories
  • -v Details about how permissions are applied or cannot be changed
  • -f Do not display an error message for those files and directories for which access rights cannot be changed

* Chmod access rules

Access rights are determined by how the user can interact with files and directories, namely r - read, w - write, x - execute.

These permissions must be prescribed for the three user groups:

  • File or directory owner
  • Users from the owner's group
  • Others

Rights definition table:

file

So, in order to write a rule for owner to give read and write access, others to give read-only rights, we have to give rw-r--r-- rights

Now take a look at the Symbol and Octal columns. It visually shows that what looks like a character rw-r--r-- looks like 644 in octal form. This is the expression we will use as the numeric notation in the command.

Let's gather everything into one record. For example, let's change the access permissions "give read rights to everybody and the owner the right to change the contents " for the file index.php:

chmod -v 644 index.php  

How to check Chmod permissions

ls -ld index.php  

where index.php is the file or directory you want to check

Example of correct use of Chmod

The default access rules for directories are 755, for files 644. So, in the vast majority of cases, you will only need these permissions

Below is an example of how to recursively set permissions on all files in the directory /var/www/example.com to 0644, and on all directories and subdirectories to 0755

cd /var/www/example.com  
find ./ -type f -exec chmod 0644 {} \;  
find ./ -type d -exec chmod 0755 {} \;  

With the first command you navigate to the right directory, then use find to find the right type: files -f (files) and directories -d (directories) -and run chmod with the right permissions.

If you have any difficulties in configuration or have any additional questions, you can always contact our support service via Ticket system.*